1865 - 1900s

#13: The Origins of the New South

A) Reconfiguration of southern agriculture: sharecropping and crop lien system


  • Despite industrial growth, south economy mainly based on agriculture
  • 1/3 of farms consisted of tenants, due to crop-lien system= farmers kept borrowing $ for future crops and falling into deeper depts when crops failed
-Tenantry 2 Types:
  1. farmers paying cash rent for land if they have their own tools, equipment, ect
  2. Sharecroppers: had nothing so landlords supplied them with land/ housing/ seed/ ect for a portion of their crops
  • Transformation of the Back Country: once grew food crops but due to dept began to grow cash crops and cotton to pay their loans

B) Expansion of manufacturing and Industrialization


  • Southern Industry expanded
  • Textile Factories appeared in the south= southern planter no longer have to ship their cotton out to be manufactured
-Popular in the south because there was cheap labor, low taxes, the factories could run off of water power, and the conservative southern government would stay out of factory affairs
- Cheap Labor= "convict-lease" system
  • Tobacco-Processing Industry was established
-American Tobacco Co in south= only monopoly over processing raw tobacco into market material (ex: cigars)
  • Iron and Steel Industry grew= 1890, industry supplied 1/5 of nations total steel and Iron
-Led to increased railroad development

+Factory Workers
- paid 1/2 of what northerners received for pay
-African Americans could only get lowest paying jobs
- Women most common= Civil War left many of them unmarried and unable to support themselves
- Families who moved into towns due to failed farms

C) The politics of segregation: Jim Crow and Disfranchisement


  • 14th Amendment state governments can not discriminate people due to race= did not apply to private organizations/individuals
  • Point= Strengthen white supremacy against the growing equality attempts
  • Jim Crow Laws: 1876, these laws involved segregation of public facilities (separate, but equal) for African and white Americans; led to inferior education, job opportunities, and social positions in America for African Americans
-Examples: separate schools, public buildings, transportation, restrooms, restaurants, ect
-Separate but equal accommodations= Plessy vs Ferguson 1896 court case
  • 15th Amendment: prohibited states from denying people the right to vote due to race
  • Disfranchisement: 1900, restriction designed to limit a person's (focused on African Americans) ability to vote
-Types of Disfranchisement
1. poll tax and property qualification
2. literacy/ understanding test= reading and interpretation of constitution
3. grandfather laws

Sources:

Brinkley's American History Book
-Chapter 15, The New South page 422